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Programming language: JavaScript
License: GNU General Public License v3.0 or later
Tags: Code Design     Boilerplate     Redux     React     Frontend    
Latest version: v0.1.19

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README

npm package dependencies

Reactuate

Join the chat at https://gitter.im/reactuate/reactuate

Reactuate is an opinionated stack for building React/Redux-based frontend applications with a focus on DDD (Domain-Driven Design). The rationale behind this project is to ensure there's a "standard stack" with compatible versions of various libraries stitched together in a cohesive way. This comes at a cost of reduced ability to swap out certain components but ultimately helps shipping software fast.

This is an early version, and some things are in a flux, and some underlying libraries and APIs will change before 1.0.

Next version roadmap

Version

Current published version:

0.1.21

License

Reactuate is licensed under the terms of [Apache 2.0 license](LICENSE.md).

<!-- START doctoc generated TOC please keep comment here to allow auto update --> <!-- DON'T EDIT THIS SECTION, INSTEAD RE-RUN doctoc TO UPDATE --> Table of Contents generated with DocToc

<!-- END doctoc generated TOC please keep comment here to allow auto update -->

Core Objectives

  1. Fork-and-forget (or fork-and-follow) is not a great way to keep up with what's happening in the original boilerplate (and in the space in general). Therefore, starting off a cloned boilerplate "kit" is not an acceptable solution. Reactuate is distributed as a dependency.
  2. Reactuate is strictly a frontend-oriented stack and is not meant to provide a foundation for so called "universal" (server and client side) JavaScript applications.
  3. Reducing the amount of noise. Many kits suffer from the need to create too many files for each "functional vertical" (such as action creators, constants, reducer), which in turn leads to increased maintenance complexity (try renaming one of the verticals!), import nightmare and inability to have a compact overview of the functionality.
  4. Discovering and learning the capabilities of a comprehensive stack could be complicated. What's worse, maintaining such stacks can be equally painful. Therefore, unconventionally, Reactuate is written as a literate program and is meant to be read as an article and be a concise reference manual โ€” while being a functional library. The effects of this literate program are also included in Reactuate's repository to improve its accessibility. Certain parts of code that do not contribute to the reader's clarity are commented out and therefore omitted from the rendered documentation. They are, however, used for source code production.

Features

Overview

Below is a quick reference diagram of the Reactuate stack.

Diagram

Requirements

Reactuate requires the following version of Node.js:

<!--+ Node.js version -->

v5.4.1

More recent versions are allowed, within the upper boundary of the next major version.

In order to produce the extracted source code of Reactuate (should you need it), you will need litpro npm package to be installed. Currently required version:

<!--+ litpro version -->

0.12.0

Building Reactuate is quite simple:

$ make

Getting started

As it has been mentioned before, Reactuate is distributed as a dependency, and can be installed with npm. Assuming you already initialized your project with npm init:

$ npm install --save-dev reactuate
# if you answered 'yes' to the postinstall script:
$ npm start
# otherwise:
$ node node_modules/reactuate/webpack-dev-server.js

Now you can open http://localhost:3000 to run the first application!

Note: The development server port defaults to 3000, but can be configured using PORT environment variable.

The rest of this manual will introduce you to the concepts and software used in the stack. Please note that this stack is developed as a literate program. This means that you'll see excerpts from the stack's code and examples of how you can use these parts. All excerpts are marked with this image: [excerpt](#)

Webpack Layer

We serve the application in development mode and package the production version using webpack package [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"):

Webpack Configuration

There's normally little to no Webpack configuration tweaking you need to do.

By default, it will assume your index.html to be this:

<!--+ index.html -->

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
    <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
        <title>Reactuate Application</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="app"></div>
    </body>
</html>

<!--+ [sample/index.html](#:index.html "save:") -->

When you are ready to override it, simply copy the above file to the root of your project.

<!--+ index file --> <!--+

require('fs').existsSync(path.join(process.cwd(), 'index.html')) ?
  path.join(process.cwd(), 'index.html') : path.join(__dirname, 'sample', 'index.html')
``` -->

This file will be processed with [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

Reactuate will search for source code files in this directory in your project:

<!--+ [source directory]() -->

    src

It will assume your main file in that directory to be `index.js`, and if there is no such file in your project yet, Reactuate will use its own sample file.

<!--+ [main file]() -->

<!--+
```js
require('fs').existsSync(path.join(options.sourceDirectory || '_":source directory"', 'index.js')) ? path.join(options.sourceDirectory || '_":source directory"', 'index.js') : path.join(__dirname, 'sample','index.js')
``` -->


All the JavaScript files are going to be process by Babel through the use of
[npm|[email protected]](# "push:") plugin.

To enable ES2015 syntax and experimental features, the following plugins are required:

* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")

To enable React-specific features, a number of Babel plugins is required:

* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")

In production builds, following optimizations are used:

* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")
* [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")

Source code builds will be produced into this directory in your project:

<!--+ [build directory]() -->

    build

<!--+ []() -->

<!--+ [webpack-config.js](# "save:") -->
<!--+
```js
var path = require('path')

var webpack = require('webpack')
var HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin')

module.exports = function(options) {
  var plugins = []
  var loaders = []

  var production = process.env['NODE_ENV'] === 'production'
  var src = options.sourceDirectory || '_":source directory"'
  var main = options.mainFile || _":main file"
  console.log('Using ' + main + ' as an entry script')
  var index = options.indexFile || _":index file"
  console.log('Using ' + index + ' as an index file')

  var port = (process.env.PORT ? parseInt(process.env.PORT, 10) : 3000)
  var entry = path.resolve(process.cwd(), main)
``` -->

When used in development mode, Webpack should use Webpack development server as
an entry point and enable hot module replacement,

<!--+
```js
  if (!production) {
    entry = [
        "webpack-dev-server/client?http://localhost:" + port, // Needed for hot reloading
        "webpack/hot/only-dev-server", // See above
        entry
      ]
  }
``` -->

<!--+
```js
  if (!production) {
    plugins.push(new webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin())
    plugins.push(new HtmlWebpackPlugin({template: index, inject: true}))
  }

-->

In production, following HTML processing will be performed:

[excerpt](#)

if (production) {
  plugins.push(new HtmlWebpackPlugin({
    template: index,
    minify: {
      removeComments: true,
      collapseWhitespace: true,
      removeRedundantAttributes: true,
      useShortDoctype: true,
      removeEmptyAttributes: true,
      removeStyleLinkTypeAttributes: true,
      keepClosingSlash: true,
      minifyJS: true,
      minifyCSS: true,
      minifyURLs: true
    },
    inject: true
  }))
}

Reactuate's Webpack configuration will define the location of the reactuate module as REACTUATE_DIRNAME variable in the target runtime.

<!--+

plugins.push(new webpack.DefinePlugin({"REACTUATE_DIRNAME": production ? "undefined" : JSON.stringify(__dirname)}))
``` -->

In production, it will produce compacted and somewhat obscured JavaScript (no source map to avoid divulging original source code's information).

<!--+
```js
if (production) {
  plugins.push(new webpack.optimize.UglifyJsPlugin({sourceMap: false, compress: {warnings: false}}))
}
``` -->

It will also set `process.env` to your host's `process.env.NODE_ENV` (if none specified, then it will be assumed to be `development`).

<!--+
```js
plugins.push(new webpack.DefinePlugin({
  "process.env": {
    NODE_ENV: JSON.stringify(process.env.NODE_ENV || "development")
  }
}))
``` -->

<!--+
```js
var jsLoaders = []
``` -->

Reactuate enables ES2015, react/react hot module replacement, and stage-0 presets.

What's important, since babel-loader will **not** use local .babelrc to merge options, Reactuate will read .babelrc (but not babel configuration from package.json yet) and merge it with its own defaults (it will use [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") for that).

By default, .babelrc takes precedence (this also means that arrays specified in .babelrc are appended to those in defaults). If the precedence needs to be flipped (for example, certain presets need to be invoked before the default ones), .babelrc.default file can be used instead of (or in addition to) .babelrc

<!--+
```js
  var fs = require('fs')
  var deepestMerge = require('deepest-merge')
  var babelConfig = {presets:["react","es2015","stage-0"],
                     plugins:["transform-export-extensions"],
                     env:{development:{presets:["react-hmre"]},
                     production: {
                       plugins:
                         ["transform-react-remove-prop-types",
                          "transform-react-constant-elements",
                          "transform-react-inline-elements"]}}}
  var babelrcFile = path.join(process.cwd(), '.babelrc')
  var defaultBabelrcFile = path.join(process.cwd(), '.babelrc.default')
  if (fs.existsSync(defaultBabelrcFile)) {
    console.log('Using ' + defaultBabelrcFile)
    var defaultBabelrc = JSON.parse(fs.readFileSync(defaultBabelrcFile))
    babelConfig = deepestMerge(defaultBabelrc, babelConfig)
  }
  if (fs.existsSync(babelrcFile)) {
    console.log('Using ' + babelrcFile)
    var babelrc = JSON.parse(fs.readFileSync(babelrcFile))
    babelConfig = deepestMerge(babelConfig, babelrc)
  }
  console.log('Babel config: \n' + JSON.stringify(babelConfig, null, ' '))
  jsLoaders.push('babel-loader?' + JSON.stringify(babelConfig))
``` -->

<!--+
```js
  loaders.push({test: /\.(js|jsx)$/,
    loaders: jsLoaders,
    exclude: /node_modules\/(?!reactuate)/
  })
``` -->

It will also enable *source maps* in development.

<!--+
```js
  var devtool = process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production' ? undefined : 'cheap-module-inline-source-map'
``` -->

Reactuate also allows importing JSON files with [json-loader](https://github.com/webpack/json-loader) [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

<!--+
```js
  loaders.push({ test: /\.json$/, loader: 'json'})
``` -->

Reactuate allows importing CSS files with [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"), [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") with [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"). It also includes [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"), [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"). In
order to enable globbing in CSS processing in postcss-import, [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") is required.

<!--+
```js
  loaders.push({ test: /\.css$/, loader: 'style!css!postcss'})
  loaders.push({ test: /\.less$/, loader: 'style!css!less'})
``` -->

Reactuate allows importing fonts and images with [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") and [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

<!--+
```js
  loaders.push({ test: /\.woff(2)?(\?.+)?$/, loader: "url?limit=10000&mimetype=application/font-woff" })
  loaders.push({ test: /\.ttf(\?.+)?$/, loader: "url?limit=10000&mimetype=application/octet-stream" })
  loaders.push({ test: /\.eot(\?.+)?$/, loader: "file" },
   { test: /\.svg(\?.+)?$/, loader: "url?limit=10000&mimetype=image/svg+xml" })
  loaders.push({ test: /\.png$/, loader: "url-loader?limit=100000" })
  loaders.push({ test: /\.jpg$/, loader: "file-loader" })

``` -->

Reactuate also requires [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") to allow loading raw
files as a string, if necessary, using the `"raw!/path/to/file"` syntax.

<!--+
```js
  return {
    entry: entry,
    devtool: devtool,
    plugins: plugins,
    postcss: function() {
      return [
      require('postcss-import')({
        resolve: function(id, base) {
            return require('globby').sync(path.join(base, id))
        },
        onImport: function (files) {
             files.forEach(this.addDependency)
         }.bind(this)
      }) ]
    },
    output: {
      path: path.resolve(process.cwd(), '_":build directory"'),
      publicPath: '/',
      filename: 'js/bundle.js'
    },
    module: {loaders: loaders},
    target: "web", // Make web variables accessible to webpack, e.g. window
    stats: false, // Don't show stats in the console
    progress: true
  }
}

In order to automate your production builds, add this to your package.json:

<!--+ npm run build -->

"scripts": {
  "build": "NODE_ENV=production webpack --config node_modules/reactuate/default-webpack-config.js --progress --colors"
}

You will be able to run it with

<!--+ npm run build command -->

$ npm run build

<!--+ default webpack config --> <!--+

var path = require('path')
var fs = require('fs')
var configFile = path.join(process.cwd(), "webpack.config.js")
if (fs.existsSync(configFile)) {
  console.log('Using webpack config ' + configFile)
}
var config = fs.existsSync(configFile) ? require(configFile) : {}
module.exports = require(path.join(__dirname, 'webpack-config'))(config)
module.exports._config = config
``` -->

<!--+ [default-webpack-config.js](#:default-webpack-config "save:") -->

## Running a development Webpack server

It is imperative to be able to run an easy to update, hot-reloadable development version of the application before shipping a build. This is what [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") does.

In order to start a development Webpack server, you can run:

<!--+ []() -->
```shell
$ node node_modules/reactuate/webpack-dev-server.js

Alternatively, you can add a convenience helper to your package.json:

<!--+ webpack-dev-server-script -->

"scripts": {
  "start": "node node_modules/reactuate/webpack-dev-server.js"
}

With this you can simply run the following to start your development server:

<!--+ webpack-dev-server-start -->

$ npm start

Development server

[excerpt](#) <!--+ [webpack-dev-server.js](# "save:") -->

var path = require('path'),
    webpack = require('webpack'),
    WebpackDevServer = require('webpack-dev-server'),
    config = require(path.join(__dirname, 'default-webpack-config')),
    port = (process.env.PORT ? parseInt(process.env.PORT, 10) : 3000)

console.log('Starting server...\n')

new WebpackDevServer(webpack(config), { // Start a server
  publicPath: config.output.publicPath,
  hot: true, // With hot reloading
  inline: false,
  historyApiFallback: true,
  quiet: false,
  proxy: config._config.devProxy
}).listen(port, 'localhost', function (err, result) {
  if (err) {
    console.log(err)
  } else {
    console.log('Server started')
    console.log('Listening at localhost:' + port)
  }
})

Language Layer

Babel Layer

Reactuate encourages the use of most recent versions of Babel. Babel is a transpiler from future versions of ECMAScript to JavaScript you can run in the browser today [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") (also required as a peer dependency [npm-peer|[email protected]](# "push:")).

Babel 6 is still fairly new and unfortunately, not all tools support it well, but this should be less of a problem going forward.

In order to avoid generating plain JavaScript files for this package, we also include babel-register [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")

ES6 also has new APIs that are provided by [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

Reactuate itself requires the following Babel configuration:

[excerpt](#) <!--+ .babelrc -->

{"presets":["react","es2015","stage-0"], "plugins":["transform-export-extensions"]}

<!--+ [.babelrc](#:.babelrc "save:") -->

React Layer

Reactuate is a React-based stack, so it naturally depends on [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") and[npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

Redux Layer

Part of React's power lies in the associated "Flux" architecture. There are many different implementations of it, and Reactuate is using Redux [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") and its React binding [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"). To enable asynchronous action creators, we have included [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") (however, we promote another way to handle asynchronous operations, more on that later). It also uses [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") for logging.

Our own version of createStore takes care of a few things automatically.

[excerpt](#) <!--+ createStore.js -->

import { createHistory }                         from 'history'
import { createStore, applyMiddleware, compose } from 'redux'
import { Provider }                              from 'react-redux'
import thunk                                     from 'redux-thunk'
import { reduxReactRouter, routerStateReducer }  from 'redux-router'
import createLogger                              from 'redux-logger'
import sagaMiddleware                            from 'redux-saga'

import domainMiddleware                          from './domainMiddleware'

export default function(routes, domains) {
  let sagas = []
  for (var domainName in domains) {
    let sagasDict = domains[domainName].get('sagas')
    for (var sagaName in sagasDict) {
      sagas.push(sagasDict[sagaName])
    }
  }
  let store = compose(
    applyMiddleware(

It enables Saga middleware for complex asynchronous operations orchestration:

      sagaMiddleware(...sagas),

It enables serializability of domain actions:

      domainMiddleware,

It also enables asynchronous action creators:

      thunk,

And adds logging in the development mode:

      createLogger({
        predicate: (getState, action) =>
        (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'development' &&
        action['type'] !== 'EFFECT_TRIGGERED' &&
        action['type'] !== 'EFFECT_RESOLVED' &&
        !action['type'].startsWith("@@redux")),
        actionTransformer: (action) => {
          if (action['type'] === '@@reactuate/action') {
            return action.payload
          } else {
            return action
          }
        }
        })),

It is important to note that it automatically injects a store enhancer for react-router:

    reduxReactRouter({routes, createHistory})
  )(createStore)
  return store
}

<!--+ [src/createStore.js](#:createStore.js "save:") -->

React Routing

As a foundation for routing React applications, we use react-router [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") (which requires a peer dependency of [npm|[email protected]](# "push:")).

We also supplement it with a npm|Redux extension [npm|[email protected]](# "push:"). Although this one is less stable, we believe it has more comprehensive functionality comparing to [redux-simple-router](redux-simple-router).

First of all, we want to define a way to create a router-enabled composite reducer:

  • Inject routerStateReducer at router

<!--+ combineReducers.js -->

[excerpt](#)

combineReducers

import { combineReducers }    from 'redux'
import { routerStateReducer } from 'redux-router'

export default function(reducers) {
   if (typeof reducers !== 'object') {
     throw "Reactuate reducers should be an object (and not a function)"
   }
   return combineReducers({router: routerStateReducer, ...reducers})
}

<!--+ [src/combineReducers.js](#:combineReducers.js "save:") -->

We also standardize route initialization. This step is hidden from the end user.

[excerpt](#)

createRouter

<!--+ createRouter.js -->

import React           from 'react'
import { ReduxRouter } from 'redux-router'
import { Provider }    from 'react-redux'

export default function(store, routes, createElement) {
  return <Provider store={store}><ReduxRouter createElement={createElement}>{routes}</ReduxRouter></Provider>
}

<!--+ [src/createRouter.js](#:createRouter.js "save:") -->

Layout

Many React/Redux applications adopt the following directory layout (or a variation of it):

src/
   actions/
     UserActions.js
     FooActions.js
   constants/
     UserConstants.js
     FooConstants.js
   reducers/
     UserReducers.js
     FooReducers.js
   components/
     Login.js
     Dashboard.js

We find this layout to be very counter-productive comparing to organizing code by domains. It is only marginally better than organizing directories or packages by entity types. Consider doing this in Java:

com.foo.bar.
           classes
           interfaces
           singletons
           factories

Does this make a lot of sense to you? Hope not!

Therefore, we propose organizing Reactuate-based applications by domain:

src/
   user/
      actions.js
      reducers.js
   small/
      index.js

This way you don't need to jump across the hierarchy of the project while working on one domain, and you can easily rename the whole domain without having to rename 4-5 files across the project!

Domain

Now we have approached one of the most important aspects of Reactuate. We structure our applications around domains, not types of artifacts.

While JavaScript as a language is quite flexible and doesn't possess a strong type system, there are some great libraries available that solve this problem to an extent. Reactuate applications make a heavy use of [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") and its helper module [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

First of all, we need to define a class representing a domain. It is a named container for all things associated with one domain (including, but not limited to, types, action creators, sagas and a reducer).

[excerpt](#)

Domain

<!--+ Domain.js -->

export default class Domain {

  constructor(prefix) {
    this.prefix = prefix || ""
  }

  withPrefix(name) {
    return (this.prefix == "" ? "" : this.prefix + "/") + name
  }

  withoutPrefix(name) {
    return name.replace(new RegExp(`^${this.prefix}\/`),'')
  }

  register(type, name, value) {
    this[type] = this[type] || {}
    this[type][name] = value
  }

  get(type) {
    return this[type] || {}
  }
}

<!--+ [src/Domain.js](# "save:") -->

Most of the time, you don't need to do anything with the Domain object yourself, except for passing it as a parameter to other Reactuate functions that you'll see below. One significant exception to that is our current convention of "attaching" your types to the domain. Consider this example:

<!--++ -->

const domain = new Domain("user")

const User = t.struct({
  email: t.String
}, 'User')

domain.User = User

This way you can easily access types from other domains when importing those domains:

import user from '../user'

const Message = t.struct({
  user: user.User,
  message: t.String
}, 'Message')

Every domain begins with a state. We define state with tcomb's help:

<!--+ Domain state example -->

import ft from 'tcomb-form-types'

import { t, Domain } from 'reactuate'

const domain = new Domain("counter")
export default domain

const State = t.struct({
  counter: ft.Number.Integer
}, 'State')

In the above example, we are defining a state that has a counter. Now, we should define an increment action. Reactuate offers helper functionality to do so, in adherence with FSA [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") guidelines:

[excerpt](#)

createAction

<!--+ createAction.js -->

import t from 'tcomb'

export default function(domain, action, payload = t.Any, defaultValue = undefined, meta = t.Any) {
  let actionString = domain.withPrefix(action)
  function ActionCreator(value = defaultValue, error = false,
                         metaValue = undefined, path = [payload.displayName]) {

    if (ActionCreator.is(value)) {
      return value
    }

    value = payload(value)

    if (typeof metaValue !== 'undefined') {
      metaValue = meta(metaValue)
    }

    if (!(this instanceof ActionCreator)) {
      return new ActionCreator(value, error, metaValue, path)
    }

    this.type = actionString
    this.payload = value

    if (!!error) {
      this.error = true
    }

    if (typeof metaValue !== 'undefined') {
      this.meta = metaValue
    }

    if (process.env.NODE_ENV !== 'production') {
      Object.freeze(this)
    }
  }

  ActionCreator.meta = {
    kind: 'actionCreator',
    payload: payload,
    name: actionString,
    identity: false
  }

  ActionCreator.displayName = `Action ${actionString}(${payload.displayName})`
  ActionCreator.actionCreator = true
  ActionCreator.action = action

  ActionCreator.is = x => x instanceof ActionCreator

  domain.register('actions', action, ActionCreator)
  return ActionCreator
}

<!--+ [src/createAction.js](#:createAction.js "save:") -->

Unfortunately, tcomb structures do not fit the definition of a plain object required by redux, so we have to implement a custom middleware that strips the extra metadata.

[excerpt](#)

domainMiddleware

<!--+ domainMiddleware.js -->

export default function ({ getState }) {
  return (next) => (action) => {
    if (!!action.constructor.actionCreator) {
      let newAction = {type: "@@reactuate/action", payload: {...action}, meta: {name: action.constructor.action}}
      return next(newAction)
    } else {
      return next(action)
    }
  }
}

<!--+ [src/domainMiddleware.js](#:domainMiddleware.js "save:") -->

IncrementCounter in the example below is an action creator:

<!--+ Domain action example -->


import { createAction } from 'reactuate'

const incrementParameter = t.struct({increment: ft.Number.Integer}, 'incrementParameter')
const IncrementCounter = createAction(domain, 'IncrementCounter',
                                      t.maybe(incrementParameter))

Reactuate has a helper that allows creating a reducer that (again) makes a good use of tcomb. The syntax that it defines is based on the one from tcomb.match(). After specifying the domain and the initial state, it takes a variadic list of matchers:

<!--+ -->

createReducer(domain, initialState, ...matchers: Array<Matcher>)

Where each Matcher has the following structure: type, [guard], handler:

  • type is a tcomb type
  • guard is an optional predicate (state, action) => boolean
  • handler is a function that handles the action (state, action) => State

It also takes care of disabling state mutation (however, normally this shouldn't be necessary, if tcomb is used for action creators).

[excerpt](#)

createReducer

<!--+ createReducer.js -->

import t from 'tcomb'

export default function(domain, initialState, ...cases) {
  let reducer = (state = initialState, action) => {
    let typedAction = action
    if (action['type'] === '@@reactuate/action') {
      let actionCreator = domain.get('actions')[domain.withoutPrefix(action.payload.type)]
      if (!t.Nil.is(actionCreator)) {
        typedAction = actionCreator(action.payload.payload, action.payload.error, action.payload.meta)
      }
    }
    Object.freeze(state)
    let stateCases = cases.map(f => {
      if (typeof f === 'function' && typeof f.meta === 'undefined') {
        return (handler) => f(state, handler)
      } else {
        return f
      }
    })
    return t.match(typedAction, ...stateCases, t.Any, () => state)
  }
  domain.reducer = reducer
  return reducer
}

<!--+ [src/createReducer.js](#:createReducer.js "save:") -->

Now, we can define a reducer this way:

<!--+ Domain reducer example -->

import { createReducer } from 'reactuate'

const initialState = State({counter: 0}, 'CounterState')

const reducer = createReducer(domain, initialState,
    IncrementCounter, (state, action) => {
      let increment = 1;
      if (incrementParameter.is(action.payload)) {
        increment = action.payload.increment
      }
      return State.update(state, {counter: { $set: state.counter + increment }})
    })

Did you notice we avoided creating the whole layer of 'constants'?

<!--+ Domain example --> <!--+

_":Domain state example"
_":Domain action example"
_":Domain reducer example"

--> <!--+ [sample/counter/index.js](#:Domain-example "save:") -->

Managing effects

When asynchronous (thunk middleware) action creates are getting too complex, it's a sign that it's time to manage effects in an orchestrated way. We are using redux-saga, [npm|[email protected]](# "push:") for that.

[excerpt](#)

createSaga

<!--+ createSaga.js -->

export default function(domain, name, saga) {
  domain.register('sagas', name, saga)
}

<!--+ [src/createSaga.js](#:createSaga.js "save:") -->

The below example shows handling the counter example in an async way (we're introducing a delay as well):

<!--+ Saga example -->

import ft               from 'tcomb-form-types'
import { t,
         Domain,
         createSaga,
         createAction,
         fork,
         take, put }    from 'reactuate'

import domain           from './index'

const asyncDomain = new Domain("counterAsync")

const incrementParameter = t.struct({increment: ft.Number.Integer}, 'incrementParameter')
const IncrementCounterDelayed = createAction(asyncDomain,
                                'IncrementCounterDelayed', t.maybe(incrementParameter))

function delay(millis) {
    return new Promise(resolve =>
      setTimeout( () => resolve(true), millis)
    )
}

createSaga(asyncDomain, 'IncrementCounterDelayed', function* () {
  while(true) {
     const nextAction = yield take(IncrementCounterDelayed.is)
     yield fork(function* () {
       yield delay(1000)
       yield put(domain.actions.IncrementCounter(nextAction.payload))
     })
   }
})

export default asyncDomain

<!--+ [sample/counter/async.js](#:Saga-example "save:") -->

Putting it all together

[excerpt](#)

<!--+ Application.js -->

import t               from 'tcomb'
import ReactDOM        from 'react-dom'

import createStore     from './createStore'
import combineReducers from './combineReducers'
import createRouter    from './createRouter'

export default class Application {

  constructor(properties) {
    this.routes = properties.routes
    this.element = properties.element || document.getElementById('app')
    this.domains = properties.domains || {}
    this.reducers = {}
    for (var key in this.domains) {
      if (!t.Nil.is(this.domains[key].reducer)) {
        this.reducers[key] = this.domains[key].reducer
      }
    }
    if (!!this.routes) {
      this.createElement = properties.createElement
      this.store = createStore(this.routes, this.domains)(combineReducers(this.reducers))
      this.router = createRouter(this.store, this.routes, this.createElement)
    }
  }

  render() {
    ReactDOM.render(this.router, this.element)
  }

}

<!--+ [src/Application.js](#:Application.js "save:") --> <!--+ -->

<!--+ index.js --> <!--+

require('babel-register')
require('babel-polyfill')
module.exports = require('./src')

-->

<!--+ [index.js](#:index.js "save:") -->

<!--+ index.es6.js -->

export Application            from './Application'
export Domain                 from './Domain'
export createReducer          from './createReducer'
export createAction           from './createAction'
export createSaga             from './createSaga'
export React                  from 'react'
export { Route }              from 'react-router'
export { connect }            from 'react-redux'
export { bindActionCreators } from 'redux'
export t                      from 'tcomb'

export { takeEvery, takeLatest } from 'redux-saga'
import { effects, utils }        from 'redux-saga'
module.exports = {...module.exports, ...effects, ...utils}

<!--+ [src/index.js](#:index.es6.js "save:") -->

Example Application

You can use it this way (this is the sample file you get by default, by the way!):

<!--+ Example -->

import { React, Route, Application,
         connect, bindActionCreators } from 'reactuate'

import counter from './counter'
import counterAsync from './counter/async'

class App extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return <div>{this.props.children}</div>
  }
}

class HomePage extends React.Component {
  handleIncrement() {
    this.props.actions.IncrementCounter()
  }
  handleIncrementDelayed() {
    this.props.actions.IncrementCounterDelayed()
  }
  render() {
    return (<div>
     <h1>Reactuate Application</h1>
     <p>
     Congratulations! You are running a Reactuate application now. Here is what you need to do to start developing your own application:
     </p>
     <ol>
       <li>Unless you have done so already, add a start script to your package.json:
        <pre><code>
{`_"Running a development Webpack server:webpack-dev-server-script|trim"`}
        </code></pre>
        This way you can easily run your application:
        <pre><code>
{`_"Running a development Webpack server:webpack-dev-server-start"`}
        </code></pre>
       </li>
       <li>Also, add this to your package.json
       <pre><code>
{`_"Webpack Configuration:npm run build"`}
       </code></pre>
       This way you can easily make a production build of your application:
       <pre><code>
{`_"Webpack Configuration:npm run build command"`}
       </code></pre>
       </li>
       <li>Copy the starter file from {`${typeof REACTUATE_DIRNAME === 'undefined' ? "<reactuate package dir>" : REACTUATE_DIRNAME}/sample/index.js`} to src/index.js</li>
     </ol>
     <div>
       <h5>Counter example</h5>
       {this.props.counter}
       <button onClick={() => this.handleIncrement()}>Increment</button>
       <button onClick={() => this.handleIncrementDelayed()}>Increment with delay</button>
     </div>
    </div>)
  }
}

HomePage = connect(state => ({counter: state.counter.counter}),
                   dispatch => ({actions:
                     bindActionCreators({...counter.actions, ...counterAsync.actions}, dispatch)}))(HomePage)

const routes = (
  <Route component={App}>
    <Route path="/" component={HomePage} />
  </Route>
)

new Application({routes, domains: {counter, counterAsync}}).render()

<!--+ [sample/index.js](#:Example "save:") -->

Appendix 1. Post-Installation Instructions

Reactuate is nice enough to help you finalizing your setup once it is installed. This requires [npm|[email protected]](# "push:").

<!--+ postinstall --> <!--+

'use strict';

var _path = require('path');

var _path2 = _interopRequireDefault(_path);

var _yesno = require('yesno');

var _yesno2 = _interopRequireDefault(_yesno);

var _fs = require('fs');

function _interopRequireDefault(obj) { return obj && obj.__esModule ? obj : { default: obj }; }

function printInstructions() {
  console.log('Add this to your package.json:\n\n"scripts": {\n  "start": "node node_modules/reactuate/webpack-dev-server.js"\n}\n\n  This way you can easily run your application:\n\n$ npm start\n\n  Also, you can add this to your package.json\n\n"scripts": {\n  "build": "NODE_ENV=production webpack --config node_modules/reactuate/default-webpack-config.js --progress --colors"\n}\n\n  This way you can easily make a production build of your application:\n\n$ npm run build\n');
}

var cwd = process.cwd();
var packageJson = _path2.default.join(cwd, '..', '..', 'package.json');

var startScript = "node node_modules/reactuate/webpack-dev-server.js";
var buildScript = "NODE_ENV=production webpack --config node_modules/reactuate/default-webpack-config.js --progress --colors";

if ((0, _fs.existsSync)(packageJson)) {
  (function () {
    var pkg = JSON.parse((0, _fs.readFileSync)(packageJson));
    var scripts = pkg.scripts || {};
    if (scripts.start !== startScript || scripts.build !== buildScript) {
      printInstructions();
      _yesno2.default.ask('Reactuate can add these convenience helpers to your package.json automatically. Proceed? ([yes]/no)', true, function (ok) {
        if (ok) {
          console.log("Updating your package.json");
          var _pkg = JSON.parse((0, _fs.readFileSync)(packageJson));
          scripts.start = startScript;
          scripts.build = buildScript;
          _pkg.scripts = scripts;
          (0, _fs.writeFileSync)(packageJson, JSON.stringify(_pkg, null, 4));
        }
        process.exit(0);
      });
    } else {
      console.log("Congratulations! Your package scripts are already configured for Reactuate");
    }
  })();
} else {
  console.log("WARNING: Looks like you haven't initialized your package with `npm init`");
  printInstructions();
}

--> <!--+ [postinstall.js](#:postinstall "save:") -->

Appendix A. Package file

We process all dependencies declared in this file to produce a list of dependencies for package.json.

<!--+ dependency --> <!--+

function(input, args, name) {
    var arr = input.split("@"),
        package = arr[0],
        version = arr[1]
    return '"' + package + '": "' + version + '"'
}

--> <!--+ [dependency](#:dependency "define:")

<!--+ package.json --> <!--+

{
  "name": "reactuate",
  "version": "_"Version"",
  "description": "Reactuate is an opinionated React-based stack",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" &&   exit 1",
    "postinstall": "node ./postinstall.js"
  },
  "repository": {
    "type": "git",
    "url": "git+https://github.com/reactuate/reactuate.git"
  },
  "keywords": [
    "react",
    "redux",
    "frontend"
  ],
  "author": "Yurii Rashkovskii <[email protected]>",
  "license": "Apache-2.0",
  "engines": {"node": ">=_"Requirements:Node.js version" <6.0"},
  "dependencies": {
      _"npm| .mapc dependency | .join \,\n"
  },
  "peerDependencies": {
      _"npm-peer| .mapc dependency | .join \,\n"
  },
  "bugs": {
    "url": "https://github.com/reactuate/reactuate/issues"
  },
  "homepage": "https://github.com/reactuate/reactuate#readme",
  "babel": _"Babel Layer:.babelrc"
}

-->

<!--+ [package.json](# "save:") -->

Appendix B. .gitignore

<!--+ [.gitignore](# "save:") -->

.checksum
node_modules

Appendix B1. .npmignore

As npm documentation says:

"Use a .npmignore file to keep stuff out of your package. If there's no .npmignore file, but there is a .gitignore file, then npm will ignore the stuff matched by the .gitignore file. If you want to include something that is excluded by your .gitignore file, you can create an empty .npmignore file to override it"

<!--+ [.npmignore](# "save:") -->

 Makefile
 .checksum


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the reactuate README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.